In recent years, Intelligent System has shown to be capable of providing strong solutions for the diagnosis of medical conditions. This is largely due to the lack of transparency in the method they use to reach a diagnosis for a given medical condition. A critical factor in medical diagnosis is the necessity to be able to explain how a diagnosis was reached. From these Medical applications the effectiveness of diagnosis Procedures medical tests combined to analyze the medical conditions from the remote system. This Project is to monitor the condition of a patient in ICU. When the Patient Condition is said to be critical an alert message is given to the doctors and they can check out the patient information’s in the PC. Monitoring is done with help of closed circuit cameras. The monitoring sensors are connected along with RF Transmitter unit placed in ICU. In addition, these records have to be transferred from the ICU to the RF Receiver which is connected along with the PC .The AI method which helps the doctors to analyses the disorder or to identify the normal condition of the Patients whether they are affected severely or not. From this it can be easily identified the disease name or the severity of the disease that can be identified by the remote system.
Monitoring patient’s health is based upon the fact that, the patients suffering from critical and chronic illness require constant surveillance. A doctor or a nurse cannot spend their whole time on any one patient but its equally important that they be in constant touch with their patients round the clock. This is what we have achieved through this project where we make a model of such a biomedical equipment ,which acts as a boon for the doctors as well as the patients .The use of such biomedical instruments in various hospitals has proved a decrease in the mortality rates .The doctor can always be in touch with the general health of the patient. He need not worry about his critical patients as they are always being monitored .The nurse on duty can send the improvements of patients to the concerned doctor .These improvements send by her can be in form of images or data. Here we concentrate more on images as we use closed circuit cameras for capturing improvements of patients. Electronic components play a major role in functioning of this biomedical equipment .These components comprise of two parts hardware and the software .These both go hand in hand for the proper working of the equipment. These components will be discussed in detail in the coming pages .All the traditional intensive care units are making way for modern intensive care units, in other words paving way for electronic ICU’s. All these modern ones, use these modern equipments .
Vital Signs to be Monitored
Despite a lack of appropriate evidence the practice of non invasive care has become standard care, particularly in theaters and critical care environments and has overflowed into general ward areas .vital signs are important component of monitoring a patients progress during hospitalization, because they allow prompt and early detection of delayed recovery or adverse events .
These vital signs to be monitored are
• Blood pressure
• Pulse rate
• Respiratory rate
• Oxygen saturation level
Monitoring vital signs is often viewed as one of the more mundane aspects of nursing care and is frequently devolved to health care assistants and nursing students .A study by Thornley (2000) found that 82 percent of health care assistants surveyed performed and recorded patients’ observations, the monitoring often goes wrong as they don’t do procedures correctly. It has been found for example that accuracy of tympanic temperatures varies depending on skill of health worker using the technology.
To take an accurate tympanic temperature, the pinna of the ear should be grasped and pulled posteriorly while the probe is inserted into auditory canal until ear canal is fully sealed off by lens cover and reading is taken while most health monitors place probe in ear with one hand and read out display in other which gives a wrong result .its often noticed that patients often show physiological changes before a critical event ,these changes or symptoms should be properly diagnosed .It should be remembered ,though, monitoring is not the same as treatment ,nor is it a substitute for treatment .Instituting even the most invasive of monitoring techniques cannot alter a patients outcome without modification of treatment .monitoring does help early diagnosis of a change in a physiological parameter and provides guidance for treatment
Patient Monitoring Systems on Close Watch
An increase in demand for intensive care facilities has resulted in a growing number of critically ill patients being admitted to acute ward areas and has subsequently increased the use of electronic monitoring devices (Murch and Warren 2001). In a survey by Chellel et al (2002) in Kent of 1,873 ward patients – from 82 wards in four trusts – there were 229 patients (12 per cent) whose care needs went beyond what could normally be managed on the ward. They also found that fundamental nursing observations on the sickest ward patients were incomplete. Such omissions imply that crucial and easily obtainable indicators of impending critical illness and deteriorating respiratory function are going undetected, creating a further risk to the critically ill ward patient
The government’s review of adult critical care services, Comprehensive Critical Care (DoH 2000a), was underpinned by the importance of developing an integrated approach to the work of the clinical team, to enable the health care system to provide critical care based on patient need rather than place ‘critical care without walls’ (DoH 2000a).appropriately trained and experienced nurses could provide the skills required by critically ill patients in critical care units; for example, the continuous observation and monitoring of critically ill patients including assimilation, interpretation and evaluation of information. It did recognise that nurses working in other areas, such as medical and surgical wards, would need to gain the appropriate knowledge, skills and competencies to care for critically ill patients, because all patients have the potential to become critically ill whether they have been admitted to a gynaecology ward or an intensive care unit (
Selection of Electronic Devices Used for Patient Monitoring
A device used in patient care should be selected with the following in mind (MDA1995):
• It should not be used unnecessarily, but if there is a need for a particular therapeutic or monitoring function, then the device used should be appropriate for the task and preferably no more elaborate than is essential for its intended function.
• It must operate safely and reliably.
• It should give clear and informative readings to users who should understand how to operate the device and how to interpret its readings or indications.
• Alarms should be fitted to assist in ensuring the safety of patients and users.
• The device should generate a minimum number of false alarms but deliver alarms when necessary and in a manner that suits the environment where it is used Smith et al (2003) concluded that electronic monitoring introduces new dimensions of understanding but also the potential for new ways of misunderstanding.
The present device is used for monitoring a patients general health. This system comprising a plurality transmitter, one for each patient to be monitored and single receiver for monitoring each of the transmitters separately. Each transmitter comprised of a sensor system for sensing patients any change of physiological parameters. Each transmitter also includes a transducer for generating signals corresponding to patients general health, and modulator for transforming the data signals to radio frequency signals. The receiver is comprised of a demodulator for sensing the radio frequency signals from a transmitter and for reproducing the data signals there from. The receiver also includes a signal processor for producing a visual display from the reproduced data signals. Signals send by transmitter is received by receiver and later converted to images or datas. The images are captured by CCTV and send to monitor on doctors desk.