This project concerns building an electronic museums guide, having BlueTooth
as the primary network source. The primary goal was to study Bluetooth and to
develop a small application showing the advantages and disadvantages of BlueTooth
in a location and context-based environment like this. Another other goal was to
research and test the different stacks implementations and supported Bluetooth
hardware, which we had available. As a result we developed the museum application
using BlueZ for Linux, as the server part and using a Nokia 3650 Series 60 cell phone
with Symbian OS for the client side.
The virtual museum will consist of a collection of Bluetooth devices each in some
way relating to one or more art artifacts or pictures. Each of these devices are
interconnected to a bluetooth server which again is connected to a database server. In this way we should be able to fetch data from the database and
send it to the bluetooth server which again streams it to a handheld (the client).
The connection between the Bluetooth server and the database server could be
some kind of ordinary TCP Local Area Network (LAN). A wireless LAN instead
of standard cables would be preferable though, because our virtual museum could
cover several 1000 of square meters where cables wouldn’t be very comprehensive.
The wireless LAN speeds are now so high (54Mbit/s) that we think it could cover
Since funds are limited, we have chosen only to use the Bluetooth devices
we have access to. The list of these devices looks like this (a picture of most of these
can be found on the CD-ROM at /test/pictures/ourdevices.jpg):
• Sony Ericsson T610 (cell phone)
• Nokia 3650 (cell phone)
• Compaq iPAQ 3670 (PDA)
• Compaq iPAQ h1940 (PDA)
• D-Link DBT-120 USB-dongle (for PC)
• CSR BUB-103 USB-dongle (for PC)
The bandwidth of a Bluetooth connection is hard to predict, because it depends on
many parameters. If actual values are wanted tests must be made.
The bandwidth of Bluetooth is 1Mb/s, but the maximum theoretical throughput
is (723.2Kb/s / 57.6Kb/s) asynchronously and 433.9 Kb/s synchronously (Actual
data throughput - without headers). This is calculated for an L2CAP connection9,
since it is the lowest layer protocol you can send user data through, and therefore
has the lowest header overhead.
These values will very rarely be achieved. Though distance between devices
has low impact on performance, packet collisions with packets in nearby
Bluetooth networks and disturbance/pollution on the radio spectrum decreases
the performance. Network structures other than peer-to-peer also decrease overall
performance. Error correction, channel congestion, and flow control also
limit throughput. Packet headers from higher layered protocols, will decrease
performance for them. The higher the layer, the more overhead, and thus worse
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