Advertising is an art not a science. Effectiveness of which cannot be measured with a mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue that advertising efforts go to waste, but every advertiser is keenly interested in measuring or in evaluation of ad. effectiveness. Testing for the effectiveness of ad. will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or after the ad has done in the media. It is of two types, pretesting which is done before the ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done before the ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done after launching the advertising campaign. The basic purpose of advertising effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes, to predict the relative strength of alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to increase their efficiency. In measurement of ad. effectiveness feed back is always useful even if it costs some extra expenditure to the advertiser.
Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%? Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising, such as the product's features, price, availability and competitors' actions. The fewer or more controllable these other factors are, the easier it is to measure advertising's effect on sales. The sales impact is easiest to measure in direct-marketing's effect on sales. The sales impact is easiest it is to measure in direct-marketing situations and hardest measure in brand or corporate-image-building advertising.
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of my study is to measure "Advertising Effectiveness". For the purpose of measuring it is to decide some other objectives of my study which are as follows :
1. To know the most effective media of advertisement
2. To find out the reasons for liking the advertisement of cold drinks.
3. To find out the most popular slogan of advertisement regarding cold drinks.
Primary Sources: Primary data has been collected directly from sample respondents through questionnaire and with the help of interview.
Secondary Sources: Secondary data has been collected from standard textbooks, Newspapers, Magazines & Internet.
Types Of Advertising
Broadly speaking, advertising may be classified into two categories viz., product and institutional advertising.
a) Product Advertising
The main purpose of such advertising is to inform and stimulate the market about the advertisers products of services and to sell these. Thus type of advertising usually promote specific, trended products in such a manner as to make the brands seam more desirable. It is used by business government organization and private non-business organizations to promote the uses features, images and benefits of their services and products. Product advertising is sub-divided into direct action and indirect action advertising, Direct action product advertising wages the buyer to take action at once, ice he seeks a quick response to the advertisement which may be to order the product by mail, or mailing a coupon, or he may promptly purchase in a retail store in response to prince reduction during clearance sale.
Product advertising is sub-divided into direct & indirect action advertising & product advertising aims at informing persons about what a products is what it does, how it is used and where it can be purchased. On the other hand selective advertising is made to meet the selective demand for a particular brand or type is product.
b) Institutional Advertising :
It is designed to create a proper attitude towards the sellers to build company image or goodwill rather than to sell specific product or service. Its purpose is to create a frame of mind and to implant feeling favourable to the advertisers company. Its assignment is to make friends for the institution or organization.
It is sub-divided into three categories : patronage, public, relations and public service institutional advertising.
i) In patronage institutional advertising the manufacturer tells his prospects and customer about himself his policies and lives personnel. The appeals to the patronage motivation of buyers. If successful, he convince buyers that his operation entitles him to the money spent by them.
ii) Public relations institutional advertising is used to create a favourable image of the firm among employees, stock-holders or the general public.
iii) Public service institutional advertising wages public support.
c) Other Types :
The other types are as follows :
i) Consumer advertising
ii) Comparative advertising
iii) Reminder advertisingiv) Reinforcement advertising
The long term objectives of advertising are broad and general, and concern the contribution advertising should make to the achievement of overall company objectives. Most companies regard advertisingly main objective as hat of proving support to personal selling and other forms of promotion. But advertising is a highly versatile communications tools and may therefore by used for achieving various short and long term objectives. Among these objectives are the following :
1. To do the entire selling job (as in mail order marketing).
2. To introduce a new product (by building brand awareness among potential buyers).
3. To force middlemen to handle the product (pull strategy).
4. To build brand preference 9by making it more difficult for middleman to sell substitutes).
5. To remind users to buy the product (retentive strategy).
6. To publicize some change in marketing strategy (e.g., a price change, a new model or an improvement in the product).
7. To provide rationalization (i.e. Socially acceptable excuses).
8. To combat or neutralize competitors advertising.
9. To improve the moral of dealers and/or sales people (by showing that the company is doing its share of promotion).10. To acquaint buyers and prospects with the new uses of the product (to extend the PLC).
Designing Advertising Campaign
The advertising campaign, especially those connected with the consumers aims at achieving these objectives :
i) To announce a new product or improve product.
ii) To hold consumers patronage against intensified campaign use.
iii) To inform consumers about a new product use.
iv) To teach consumers how to use product.
v) To promote a contest or a premium offer.
vi) To establish a new trade regional, and
vii) To help solve a coca regional problem.
The institutional advertising campaign on the other hand, have these objectives.
i) To create a corporate personality or image.
ii) To build a company prestige.
iii) To keep the company name before the public.
iv) To emphasize company services and facilities.
v) To enable company salesman to see top executive consistently when making sales calls, and
vi) To increase friendliness and goodwill towards the company.Developing the campaign programmes. The advertising campaigns are prepared by the advertising agencies, which work an behalf of their clients who manufacture product or service enterprises, which have services to sell. The word campaign is used because advertising agencies approach their task with a sum Blanca of military fanfare in which one frequently hears words like target audience logistics, zero in and tactics and strategy etc.